The Neanderthals were named for ancient human remains that were found in a valley of the same name, just north of Switzerland – and there is a lot of evidence to suggest that an enclave of Neanderthals existed in Switzerland – indeed, thrived in Switzerland – many thousands of years after going extinct elsewhere.
One bit of evidence for this are bits and pieces of language – linguistic artefacts, if you will.
Here is a town in a highly secluded region of Switzerland that could easily have been home to one of these Neanderthal enclaves:
The town is named “Taa” – no, that is not a Klingon name, although you could be forgiven for thinking it is. It is one of a handful of very strange words filled with hard, explosive sounds.
For another example of a probably Neanderthal enclave, please have a look here.